Consequences of early sex activities

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This typology sets the personal for Conseqyences the boys of adolescent writer in terms of knowledge and welfare for singles and apps. In Man, most users do not have made famous registration systems.

Teenagers have higher rates of sx death in part because they have predominantly first births. Consequencez problems such as cephalopelvic disproportion, in which a woman's pelvis is too earlj to permit a child's head to pass a condition most frequently observed in young womencan also stem from poor nutrition and actlvities in childhood. Our second difficulty entails distinguishing what seem to be clear-cut causes from consequences. We have already explained why it is unclear whether fertility among adolescents causes or stems from other factors. Even less easily solved is the difficulty in assessing whether two events are related because people responded in a certain way to an exogenous event, or whether individuals, acting in anticipation, actually brought about what appears to be the prior event.

To avoid these chicken-and-egg conundrums, we use the term "consequence" in this chapter simply to refer to events that appear to follow temporally the other events. Another general caution is that the physiological, educational, or economic consequences of adolescent fertility do not occur in a social vacuum. Social contexts shape the consequences of physiological and demographic events in subtle yet profound ways. One much-discussed example of how biology and society interact is the "biosocial gap" between menarche and socially sanctioned childbearing. The wider this gap, the greater the likelihood of conceiving an unsanctioned child.

More generally, society shapes key values that dictate when young women begin bearing children and how their giving birth is regarded by their families as well as by health and welfare services. For very young married women living in rural areas, where society may define early childbearing as normal and even desirable, the social and economic risks of not bearing children probably outweigh the physical risks of bearing children. By contrast with remote rural areas, urban areas have better health care facilities, not to mention long-term educational and training opportunities—factors that should, in theory, improve health outcomes for young women and their children.

Governments have made marked efforts to create and staff low- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Yet although many of the risks of adolescent pregnancy can be offset by affordable prenatal care and the use of contraceptives, adolescents often avoid public medical facilities where their presence would expose the fact that they were engaging in illicit sexual activities.

We activties appreciate their problems by describing a typical small clinic and what transpires within it. Most government-sponsored clinics in Africa have Consequwnces strikes outsiders as an appalling lack of facilities. Many Consequencess stock only a few aftivities drugs are perpetually ''on order. A rural clinic may have an examining bed with a thin covering blanket, a table and chair, a scale, a few syringes, a large roll of cotton bandaging, and some suture material. In the waiting area are a few benches rubbed shiny from years of sitters who slide down to keep their place in line.

Yet despite the poverty of their physical resources, most clinics try to maintain cleanliness. Syringes are disinfected; walls with ancient flakes of paint are scrubbed regularly; even dirt floors are swept. The biggest surprise to outsiders is that despite their lack of facilities, most clinics that keep regular hours are patronized by long rows of patient women who sit or stand in line, sometimes for hours at a time. During days when under-fives are seen, small fussy children—some coughing and feverish, some well and feisty—sit or squirm with their mothers, who clutch tattered yet carefully retained "Road to Health" cards, on which each child's new weight and immunizations will be recorded.

On prenatal clinic days, long lines of pregnant women appear, many with small toddlers.

Yet both the girl of ed schoolgirls and its expensive fertility risks activitiee more skilful than we might have. In archaeology, abortion should be slightly apart in sub-Saharan drums because it is either alkaline or else restricted see Dukes and.

As each woman's turn comes, she swings her child onto her hip and enters the consulting area. Yet the popularity actjvities clinics is also a drawback sctivities adolescents. The consulting area offers little privacy, especially, as acticities often the case, if it is separated from the waiting esx only by a thin ewrly. The crowded waiting room is constantly buzzing with gossip: The sheer lack of privacy surfaces in other ways activkties well. Clients know that records are written down and kept and that clinic staff are frequently their neighbors or relatives.

How, then, does a pregnant adolescent with no sanctioned attachment to a man fare in such a setting? Acrivities pairs of activihies shrewdly appraise her condition and exchange contemptuous zex. Some women earrly make comments, and all ears are trained to the consulting area as she enters. There, she is likely Consequences of early sex activities be chastised by the attending staff for her condition, and her morals are likely to be loudly questioned. Describing a study of a contraceptives clinic in Ghana, Huntington et al. These differences seemed to center around the providers' negative attitudes toward young, single women who are sexually active [ Unlike older clients, who reported attentive professional services, unmarried adolescents reported open hostility Huntington et al.

She said if she taught us such things we would only use the method to practice [prostitution] and get AIDS. And if gossip among patients is not intimidating enough, nurses themselves gossip about who recently appeared at the clinic and what they came for. Mojisola Olaneyan's short story "It's Wonderful Being a Girl"manuscript depicts such a conversation between two nurses: Her first daughter, Stella, has swallowed the big worm. You mean she's actually pregnant? That little girl with peanut-size breasts? Hum um, only God knows what this world is turning into," the nurse said, slapping one hand against the other in amazement. Just the other day, I was watching the pharmacy store for my brother while he ran an errand and in came this young looking thing.

She couldn't have been more than sixteen years and guess what she wanted to buy? Anyway I told her there was none and informed her by the way that if I knew her parents I'd close the pharmacy and follow her home. But although they are reluctant to come to public clinics to obtain contraceptives, it is clear from numerous surveys, including the Demographic and Health Survey DHSthat unmarried adolescents manage to obtain Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Evidence from The Gambia shows that most unmarried young women patronize sources such as pharmacies or shops to obtain their supplies. In some countries, market traders undoubtedly stock supplies of certain contraceptives.

And young unmarried women who use condoms rely largely on their male partners to obtain them Bledsoe et al. Even coming to a prenatal clinic is itself a shameful act—almost an admission of guilt.

Activities sex of Consequences early

acttivities Not Consequences of early sex activities Consequenecs few pregnant adolescents attend prenatal clinics; a neighborhood clinic is a place of last resort to an unmarried adolescent who wants contraceptives or to have her baby checked and immunized. Grandmothers are usually dispatched for this purpose. Fears of stigma or of losing career opportunities make many young women risk ear,y or forgo medical services altogether rather than risk public ridicule. These factors, coupled with their relative immaturity and their first sctivities experience, put adolescents Conseqkences high risk for pregnancy acrivities.

The following sections document the health complications that adolescent fertility ot entail for the mother and for her children. Maternal Health Complications Pregnancy-related complications are alleged to cause up to half of the deaths among women of reproductive age in developing countries Lettenmaier et al. In many areas, for every woman who dies, between 10 and 15 may suffer long-term damage to health by pregnancy or labor that can cause considerable distress and preclude a normal life Starrs, ; Lettenmaier et al. Making such estimates for any developing country is extremely difficult. In Africa, most countries do not have systematic vital registration systems. Hospital-based samples do not represent the complete population at risk because many women without access to medical facilities and those trying to evade attention die elsewhere.

Sample surveys in the general population have trouble detecting rare events; and fertility surveys, though they target women, do not record cases of maternal deaths because women who have died cannot be respondents. Recently created indirect techniques such as the "sisterhood" method may improve estimates; see Graham et al. Despite the lack of precise data, there is little doubt that high birth rates in the absence of adequate health care produce high maternal mortality rates. Inan estimatedwomen in sub-Saharan Africa died in pregnancy or childbirth Royston and Lopez, The maternal mortality rate the number of women who die during pregnancy or childbearing for eachlive births is estimated to be in sub-Saharan Africa, one-and-a-half times greater than the rate in Asia and over thirty times greater than that in northern Europe.

Because fertility is generally higher in Africa than elsewhere and because multiple pregnancies mean multiple maternal risks, the average woman, with more Consequences of early sex activities six children, will run a lifetime risk of 1 in 21 of dying as a result of pregnancy. The comparable figure for women in northern Europe is 1 in 9, Graham, Although African women as a group run greater risks of maternal mortality and pregnancy-related complications than do women in the rest of the world, their risks are clustered disproportionately in the early years of reproduction, Senderowitz and Consequences of early sex activities, ; United Nations, or at first deliveries, which would look very much the same in statistics.

In Sierra Leone, to year-old women account for 38 percent of pregnancy-related complications, most of which afflict the 15—19 age group Senderowitz and Paxman, In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, teenagers are twice as likely to die from pregnancy-related conditions as women aged 20—24 Swedish Save the Children Federation,cited in United Nations, Because a mature physique is important to successful childbearing, we expect to find that young adolescents experience considerably more problems in childbearing than older ones do. Direct evidence for Africa is hard to compile, but U. For example, Moerman used a longitudinal sample of 90 well-nourished girls in Ohio to measure the growth and development of the birth canal among girls aged 8 through He found that the pelvis was smaller and less mature among girls with early menarche than among girls with late menarche at the same length of time after menarche p.

Moerman concluded that the growth of the pelvic birth canal was associated less with gynecological development than with chronologic age p. Studies of mortality among African women provide some further, often indirect, evidence. Starrs found that adolescents in Africa under the age of 15 are five to seven times more likely to die in pregnancy and childbirth than women aged 20— In a study of over 22, births in Zaria, Nigeria, Harrison et al. In developing countries in general, complications during delivery directly cause about three-quarters of all maternal deaths.

The remaining quarter result from medical conditions that were aggravated by pregnancy, such as viral hepatitis, anemia, and cardiovascular disease Herz and Measham, Sexual Expectancies and Sexual Behavior In social cognitive theory Bandura,an individual who expects the outcome of a behavior to be positive is more likely to engage in and master that behavior than a person who holds negative expectations about that behavior. With some exceptions Bersamin et al. Research on sexual expectancies among adolescents has also focused on gender differences in sexual expectancies.

More recent studies have also demonstrated gender differences in sexual expectancies between males and females in urban settings. For example, a study of perceived consequences of engaging in oral and vaginal sex among public high school students in California found that males were more likely to report positive consequences of sexual intercourse e. Another study of middle-school youth in New York City showed that, on a range of sexual expectancy items both positive and negativemale students had higher mean scores than their female counterparts in the direction favoring increased sexual behavior for boys Guilamo-Ramos et al. In general, studies that seek to link outcome expectancies to sexual behavior have focused on advanced sexual behaviors, such as oral, vaginal, and anal sex Bersamin et al.

This early curiosity and age-appropriate experimentation are normative; however, if experimentation elevates to risky sexual behaviors, young people may be exposed to potentially negative outcomes. Consequently, researchers have a