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The women whose Gay family homes age in both groups was 29 with homex or bisexual fathers had difficulty with adult attachment issues in three areas: The study was based on a large, nationally representative, and random survey of school-age children. In a re-examination of a study by Rosenfeld Allen et Gay family homes. This difference damily statistically significant at the 1 percent level. A ground-breaking study from the University of Texas familu Austin Regnerus found that young-adult children ages ohmes of parents who had same-sex relationships before the subjects had reached the age of 18 were more likely to suffer gamily a broad range fxmily emotional and social problems.
The study is noteworthy for several reasons: The children of lesbians and gays fared worse than those hojes intact heterosexual families on 77 of the 80 outcome measures. Fwmily related only camily the voting habits of children with gay fathers, and alcohol use by children of lesbian mothers. Hmes recent years, married or cohabiting gay and lesbian couples have acquired children through artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. Research published in Marquardt et al. Men in gay unions are now also seeking biologically related children through the use of surrogate mothers.
A study of children conceived through surrogate mothers by Golombok et al. The children were evaluated at ages 3, 7, and The study demonstrated that children gestated by a surrogate had higher adjustment difficulties at age 7 than the other children. The authors concluded that the absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be problematic for children. In a study Sullins a using a representative sample ofchildren, including with same-sex parents, from the US National Health Interview Survey, emotional problems were over twice as prevalent minimum risk ratio RR 2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was more than twice RR 2. How can one reconcile these significant findings with the widely publicized studies showing no harmful effects to children who have, or have lived with, lesbian or gay parents?
For example, inthe American Psychological Association APA issued an official brief on lesbian and gay parenting, which included this assertion: Marks stated that this strong assertion made by the APA was not empirically warranted. Twenty-six of 59 APA studies on same-sex parenting had no heterosexual comparison groups. And in comparison studies, single mothers were often used as the heterosexual comparison group. In none of the 59 published studies were the definitive claims substantiated. The author recommended further research. Major flaws exist in the vast majority of studies published before on this subject Marks including the fact that they relied upon small, nonrepresentative samples that are not representative of children in typical homosexual families in the United States.
Two major studies, published by Gartrell and Bos and Biblarz and Staceyare often cited by gay activists and extensively in the media. These studies claim that no psychological damage occurs to children who were deliberately deprived of the benefits of gender complementarity in a home with a father and a mother.
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The article by Gartrell and Bos relies solely on self-reports of the lesbian mothers who were aware of the political agenda behind the study. Similarly, in the research done by Biblarz and Stacey, in 31 of the 33 studies of two-parent families, it was the parents who provided the data, which consisted of subjective judgments. The review concluded that all of the studies lacked external validity and that therefore: Many of these studies suffer from similar limitations and weaknesses, with the main obstacle being the difficulty in acquiring representative, random samples on a virtually invisible population.
Many lesbian and gay parents are not open about their sexual orientation due to real fears of discrimination, homophobia, and threats of losing custody of their children. Those who do participate in this type Gay family homes research are usually relatively open about their homosexuality and, therefore, may bias the research towards a particular group of gay and lesbian parents. Because of the inevitable use of convenience samples, sample sizes are usually very small and the majority of the research participants end up looking quite homogeneous—e.
Another pattern is the wide discrepancy between the number of studies conducted with children of gay fathers and those with lesbian mothers Another potential factor of importance is the possibility of social desirability bias when research subjects respond in ways that present themselves and their families in the most desirable light possible. Such a phenomenon does seem possible due to the desire of this population to offset and reverse negative images and discrimination. Consequently, the findings of these studies may be patterned by self-presentation bias. Most studies rely on small-scale, snowball and convenience samples drawn primarily from personal and community networks or agencies.
Most research to date has been conducted on white lesbian mothers who are comparatively educated, mature, and reside in relatively progressive urban centers, most often in California or the Northeastern states. Herek's paper in American Psychologist stated: The overall methodological sophistication and quality of studies in this domain have increased over the years, as would be expected for any new area of empirical inquiry. More recent research has reported data from probability and community-based convenience samples, has used more rigorous assessment techniques, and has been published in highly respected and widely cited developmental psychology journals, including Child Development and Developmental Psychology.
Data are increasingly available from prospective studies. In addition, whereas early study samples consisted mainly of children originally born into heterosexual relationships that subsequently dissolved when one parent came out as gay or lesbian, recent samples are more likely to include children conceived within a same-sex relationship or adopted in infancy by a same-sex couple. Thus, they are less likely to confound the effects of having a sexual minority parent with the consequences of divorce. The methodologies used in the major studies of same-sex parenting meet the standards for research in the field of developmental psychology and psychology generally. The studies specific to same-sex parenting were published in leading journals in the field of child and adolescent development, such as Child Development, published by the Society for Research in Child Development, Developmental Psychologypublished by the American Psychological Association, and The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, the flagship peer-review journals in the field of child development.
Gay parents "tend to be more motivated, more committed than heterosexual parents on average, because they chose to be parents," said Abbie Goldberg, a psychologist at Clark University in Massachusetts who researches gay and lesbian parenting.
Gays and lesbians rarely become parents by accident, compared with an famoly 50 percent accidental pregnancy rate among heterosexuals, Goldberg said. Not only that, but gays and lesbians are likely to provide homes for difficult-to-place children in the foster system, studies show. Of course, this isn't to say that heterosexual parents can't bring these same qualities to the parenting table. Rather than comply, Catholic Charities closed up shop.
Catholic opposition aside, research suggests that gay and lesbian parents are actually a powerful resource for kids in need of adoption. According to a report by the Williams Institute and the Urban Institute, 65, kids were living with adoptive gay parents between andwith another 14, in foster homes headed by gays and lesbians. There are currently more thankids in foster care in the U. An October report by Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute found that, of gay and lesbian adoptions at more than agencies, 10 percent of the kids placed were older than 6 — typically a very difficult age to adopt out.
About 25 percent were older than 3. Sixty percent of gay and lesbian couples adopted across races, which is important given that minority children in the foster system tend to linger. More than half of the kids adopted by gays and lesbians had special needs. The report didn't compare the adoption preferences of gay couples directly with those of heterosexual couples, said author David Brodzinsky, research director at the Institute and co-editor of "Adoption By Lesbians and Gay Men: But research suggests that gays and lesbians are more likely than heterosexuals to adopt older, special-needs and minority children, he said.